Whatever the cause of male infertility, it is always disclosed on the spermogram. Therefore it is a recommendation of the andrologist that examination of a childless couple be started with recording male spermogram. The following variants of sperm pathology are distinguished:
Unejaculation (aspermia, unejaculatory syndrome) is the lack of ejaculate (sperm).
Аsoospermia is the lack of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. They distinguish the secretory asoospermia when the spermatozoa are not formed in the ova and an obstructive asoospermia when the spermatozoa are formed but are not ejacutated because of impassability of the sperm-discharging pathways.
Оligospermia is the deficient expulsion volume of the semen.
Оligosoospermia is the presence of abnormally few spermatozoa in the semen.
Аstenozoospermia is the deficient mobility of the spermatozoa.
Necrospermia is the lack of living spermatozoa.
Cryptospermia is the presence of sole movable spermatozoa in the ejaculate.
Тeratospermia is a condition characterized by the presence of a great number of morphologically malformed spermatozoa in the semen.
Pyospermia is an increased amount of the leucocytes in the sperm due to inflammation.
Analysis of the ejaculate (spermogram) characterizes male sperm fertility. For the ejaculate with normal values of the count, mobility and morphology of the spermatozoa the term “normospermia” is used. An excessive number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate (more than 200 million per 1 ml is designated by the term “polyspermia”.
Besides spermogram it is recommended that a patient undergo an ultrasonic examination of the testicles and scrotum. Such examination allows specify the prostate structure and spermatic vessels.